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Tozuda sensors can detect forces in any direction within milliseconds of impact. Concussions occur when an impact to the head or body causes the brain to move inside of the skull; most concussions and traumatic brain injuries are caused by rotational and linear forces. Our sensors withstand regular helmet use and minor impacts, but can detect when a hit is potentially concussive, such as a direct, linear blow to the helmet, or a rotational hit which causes the head or neck to twist.



Our sensors are mechanically activated when linear or rotational accelerations exceed the threshold of 85 Gs of force. This trigger point was determined using data from a study conducted by the Department of Orthopaedics at Brown University which found that impacts of 75 Gs were 50% likely to be concussive. Direct contact and impact from inertial forces trigger the sensor to activate, meaning the sensor can detect concussive hits even when the head isn’t struck. Once activated, Tozuda sensors release a simple, non-toxic mix of liquid and dye, changing in color from clear to red.



Tozuda sensors measure the force of an impact and indicate when an athlete should be evaluated before returning to the field—no sensor on the market today is able to fully detect or prevent concussions. This allows users to clearly identify when an impact is especially dangerous–exceeding 85 Gs–and prevents users from exacerbating an injury when they might not even know they have one. With the ability to alert users of major linear and rotational forces, the sensors can clearly and reliably indicate a potential concussion, even when other symptoms aren’t present.





Research from the Department of Orthopaedics at Brown University details concussion probability based on the varying G forces of more than 161,000 tested collisions. According to this data, an impact with a measured acceleration of 75 Gs has a 50% chance of causing a concussion in adults.

These findings are for a sample of adult subjects. The results from this study are less accurate in predicting concussion probabilities for young adults, teens, and children as younger brains are more sensitive and susceptible to injury until age 25, when the brain fully develops and matures. 



While concussions can be damaging, second-impact syndrome is exponentially more dangerous. Second-impact syndrome, or SIS, occurs when one sustains a second concussion before an initial concussion has properly healed. SIS causes the brain to swell suddenly, and with devastating consequences. The majority of cases are fatal, and of the few survivors, most are left seriously disabled.  With SIS, time between concussions can range from minutes to weeks; this is why it is so important to wait to return to play until a concussion or brain injury can fully heal.



From NBC 10 Philadelphia's Growing Greater Philadelphia
Close view of the 3D printer making sensor body prototypes